Situated at a low point in the gardens, it collected water it drained from the fountains in the garden above. With the construction of the Aile des Nobles (1685–1686), the Parterre du Nord was remodeled to respond to the new architecture of this part of the château. With a length of 1,500 metres and a width of 62 metres, the Grand Canal,[14] which was built between 1668 and 1671, physically and visually prolongs the east–west axis to the walls of the Grand Parc. Between 1668 and 1674, a project was undertaken to divert the water of the Bièvre river to Versailles. ", Weber, Gerold. Engendered by a change in outlook as advocated by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Philosophes, the winter of 1774–1775 witnessed a complete replanting of the gardens. The 250 acres are riddled with paths that lead to flower beds, quiet corners decorated with classical statuary, ornamental lakes, and a canal used for gondola rides by King Louis XIV. Versailles and the Sun King (1643-1715) Louis XIII died in 1643, leaving the monarchy in the hands of the four-year-old Louis XIV. As of 2008, this bosquet is in the process of being restored (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). Versailles, built just outside Paris in the 17th century, is one of the best-known French castles. With the outbreak of the war, the project was abandoned, never to be completed. Gardens, Fountains and Sculptures Particularly if you're visiting in the spring, summer or early fall, a long stroll through the elaborate formal gardens designed by famed landscape architect André Le Nôtre are in order. The Versailles gardens took 40 years to complete, and … Up Next. ", Waltisperger, Chantal. Versailles includes a large canal, two parterres, large rectangular pools … [12] Designed by André Le Nôtre, sculpted by Gaspard and Balthazar Marsy, and constructed between 1668 and 1670, the fountain depicted an episode from Ovid's Metamorphoses. Sort by: Top Voted. Introduction. One final attempt to solve water shortage problems was undertaken in 1685. ", Marriage, Thierry. Conditions to access the estate of Versailles. The central feature of this bosquet, which was designed by Le Nôtre between 1671 and 1674, was an auditorium/theater sided by three tiers of turf seating that faced a stage decorated with four fountains alternating with three radiating cascades. 1693, "Vue de l'intérieur du bosquet du Labyrinthe" by Jean Cotelle, ca. "The Parterre d'eau at Versailles: an eighteenth-century recollection. The event, which officially was to celebrate his mother, Anne d'Autriche, and his consort Marie-Thérèse but in reality celebrated Louise de La Vallière, Louis' mistress, was held in May of that year. The rockwork grotto set in an English style bosquet was the masterpiece of Hubert Robert in which the statues from the Grotte de Thétys were placed. With the aid of Fouquet's architect Louis Le Vau, painter Charles Le Brun, and landscape architect André Le Nôtre, Louis began an embellishment and expansion program at Versailles that would occupy his time and worries for the remainder of his reign. [7] At every stage the prescribed tour was carefully managed, under the Sun King's directions. As a result of this fête – particularly the lack of housing for guests (most of them had to sleep in their carriages), Louis realized the shortcomings of Versailles and began to expand the château and the gardens once again. 1693, "Galerie des Antiques" by Jean Joubert, ca. Versailles Garden France Wall Art Print, France Art, Photography Prints, Versailles Garden Photography, France Wall Art, Versailles Print SkariStudio. He succeeded in preventing further dispersing of the Grand Parc and threats to destroy the Petit Parc were abolished by suggesting that the parterres could be used to plant vegetable gardens and that orchards could occupy the open areas of the garden. Situated above the Latona Fountain is the terrace of the château, known as the Parterre d'Eau. ", Bottineau, Yves. The attempt to convert Le Nôtre's masterpiece into an English-style garden failed to achieve its desired goal. When he came of age, Louis began work on the family hunting lodge, ordered the addition of kitchens, stables, gardens, and residential apartments. From shop SkariStudio. ", Nolhac, Pierre de. Pruning is also done to keep trees at between 17 and 23 metres (56 to 75 feet), so as not to spoil the carefully calibrated perspectives of the gardens.[45]. Versailles was designed as a palatial centre of government for an absolute monarch, Louis XIV. ", Pinatel, Christine. When the Versailles Gardens were complete, they included 372 statues, … The Gardens of Versailles (French: Jardins du château de Versailles; French pronunciation: ​[ʒaʁdɛ̃ dy ʃato də versaij]) occupy part of what was once the Domaine royal de Versailles, the royal demesne of the château of Versailles. With the arrival of Pierre de Nolhac as director of the museum in 1892, a new era of historical research began at Versailles. (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976; Nolhac 1899, 1901, 1902, 1925). The replantations have allowed museum and governmental authorities to restore and rebuild some of the bosquets abandoned during the reign of Louis XVI, such as the Bosquet des Trois Fontaines, which was restored in 2004. In 1704, three additional entrances to the Colonnade were added, which reduced the number of fountains from thirty-one to twenty-eight. In the same year, Le Vau's Orangerie, located to south of the Parterrre d'Eau was demolished to accommodate a larger structure designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart. 1693, "Bassin de l'Encélade" Jean Cotelle, ca. 1693, "Bassin de Neptune" by Jean Cotelle, ca. Creating the gardens was a monumental task. 1713, "Bosquet de l'Île Royale et le Bassin du Miroir" by Étienne Allegrain, ca. It is this final version of the fountain that one sees today at Versailles. (Marie 1976; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), With the departure of the king and court from Versailles in 1715 following the death of Louis XIV, the palace and gardens entered an era of uncertainty. Île du Roi - Miroir d'Eau - Jardin du Roi In 1750, the year in which les jardins botaniques were constructed, the Jardinier-Fleuriste, Claude Richard (1705–1784), assumed administration of the botanical gardens. (Marie 1972, 1975; Nolhac 1901, 1925; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), Modifications in the gardens during the third building campaign were distinguished by a stylistic change from the natural esthetic of André Le Nôtre to the architectonic style of Jules Hardouin Mansart. [37]. Technically, the "'Grotte de Thétys" played a critical role in the hydraulic system that supplied water to the garden. After we explored the Palace of Versailles in the morning, we made our way out to the expansive and opulent gardens, which sprawl over nearly 2,000 acres of land surrounding the palace. At Versailles, the development of the gardens preceded that of the palace. To compensate for the loss of the reservoir on top of the Grotte de Thétys and to meet the increased demand for water, Jules Hardouin-Mansart designed new and larger reservoirs situated due north of the Aile des Nobles (Thompson 2006). The Pompe drew water from the Clagny pond using a system of windmills and horsepower to a cistern housed in the Pompe's building. In 1681, one of the most ambitious water projects conceived during the reign of Louis XIV was undertaken. The Machine de Marly was designed to lift water from the Seine in three stages to the aqueduc de Louveciennes some 100 metres above the level of the river. Versailles is the most famous garden in the world. Designed as a simple unadorned salle de verdure by Le Nôtre in 1678, the landscape architect enhanced and incorporated an existing stream to create a bosquet that featured rivulets that twisted among nine islets. Symbolically, the "Grotte de Thétys" related to the myth of Apollo – and by that association to Louis XIV. Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau is being recreated in 2014, with South Korean businessman and photographer Yoo Byung-eun being the sole patron, donating €1.4 million (~US$1.9 million) to the project.[40][41][42][43]. ), the Gardens at Versailles are the perfect green getaway from the … 1688, "Le théâtre d'eau-vue de a scène" by Jean Cotelle, ca. These works of art are also a paradise representative of the ambitions of Louis XIV when he was a young king. "Entrée du Labyrinthe" by Jean Cotelle, ca. In 1682, the southern bosquet was remodeled as the Bosquet de la Girondole, thus named due to spoke-like arrangement of the central fountain. These additions were removed in 1708. With the relocation of the statues from the Grotte de Thétys in 1684, the bosquet was remodeled to accommodate the statues and the Fame fountain was removed. In 1684, Jules Hardouin-Mansart completely redesigned the bosquet by constructing a circular arched double peristyle. "Sur la restauration de quelques sculptures du parc du Versailles. In their history, the gardens of Versailles have undergone no less than five major replantations, which have been executed for practical and aesthetic reasons. As part of the replantation of the gardens ordered by Louis XVI during the winter of 1774–1775, the Bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau was destroyed and replaced with the unadorned Bosquet du Rond-Vert (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). Most significant among the creations at this time were the Versailles Orangerie and the "Grotte de Thétys". Versailles before Louis XIV It was at the Petit Trianon that Louis XV fell fatally ill with smallpox; on 10 May 1774, the king died at Versailles. ", Lighthart, Edward. As André Félibien noted in his description of Versailles, solar and apollonian themes predominated with projects constructed at this time: "Since the sun was the emblem of Louis XIV, and that poets join the sun and Apollo, there is nothing in this superb house that does not relation to this divinity. The grotto would be completed during the second building campaign. Orange trees outline a formal garden at Versailles, once the epicenter of French royal power. The northern bosquet was rebuilt in 1696 as the Bosquet du Dauphin with a fountain that featured a dolphin. Yet, such is the story of Louis XV’s private gardens at the Trianon, a pair of palaces on the grounds of Versailles where the French monarchy retreated from the public view. "L'univers de Le Nostre et les origines de l'aménagement du territoire. The galerie was completely remodeled in 1704 when the statues were transferred to Marly and the bosquet was replanted with horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum) – hence the current name Salle des Marronniers (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). View of Versailles Palace. Bosquet de la Renommée—Bosquet des Dômes Free Wi-Fi points are located in the Main Courtyard and at the garden entrance, and a free Gardens of Versailles app is available to download. Palace of Versailles gardens is one of the largest gardens ever created. In 1665, André Le Nôtre planned a hedge maze of unadorned paths in an area south of the Latona Fountain near the Orangerie. Had the aqueduct been completed, some 50,000 m3 of water would have been sent to Versailles – more than enough to solve the water problem of the gardens (Thompson, 2006). The marvel of the gardens of Versailles – then as now – is the fountains. In 1672, Jean-Baptiste Colbert devised a system by which the fountaineers in the garden would signal each other with whistles upon the approach of the king indicating that their fountain needed to be turned on. 1693, "Parterre du Nord" by Étienne Allegrain, ca. Between 1686 and 1689, when the Nine Years' War began, one-tenth of France's military was at work on the Canal de l'Eure project. ", Weber, Gerold. Rachel Ruysch, Fruit and Insects. Yet, the very element that animates the gardens, water, has proven to be the affliction of the gardens since the time of Louis XIV. The old Bosquet des Bains d'Apollon was renamed Bosquet des Dômes due to two domed pavilions built in the bosquet (Marie 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). It can be breezy in the gardens even in summer, so bring a jacket. Bosquet de la Montagne d'Eau - Bosquet de l'Étoile "Réflexions sur la genèse du jardin français classique et de son décor. These days, it’s difficult to imagine anything—certainly a garden—enduring for nearly 300 years. The palace itself is designed with elaborate architecture and attention to detail, but for many it's the gardens at Versailles that are worth visiting. (Thompson 2006), Parterre d'Eau (Marie 1968; Nolhac 1901, 1925; Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985). 1693, "Bosquet de l'Étoile ou la Montagne d'eau" by Jean Cotelle, ca. 1670, Located on the east–west axis just west and below the Parterre d'Eau, is the Bassin de Latone. This system brought an additional 72,000 m3 of water to the gardens (Thompson, 2006). "Les statues aux façades du château de Versailles. (Nolhac 1899, 1902), The "Grotte de Thétys", which was located to the north of the château, formed part of the iconography of the château and of the gardens that aligned Louis XIV with solar imagery. By damming the river and with a pumping system of five windmills, water was brought to the reservoirs located on the Satory Plateau. (Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), Owing to the many modifications made to the gardens between the 17th and the 19th centuries, many of the bosquets have undergone multiple modifications, which were often accompanied by name changes. With the completion of the Grand Canal in 1671, which served as drainage for the fountains of the garden, water, via a system of windmills, was pumped back to the reservoir on top of the Grotte de Thétys. On weekends from late spring to early autumn, the administration of the museum sponsors the Grandes Eaux – spectacles during which all the fountains in the gardens are in full play. Additionally, to accommodate the anticipated construction of the Aile des Nobles – the north wing of the château – the Grotte de Thétys was demolished. "Un dessin révèle l'origine d'un marbre antique du parc de Versailles. To meet the needs of the early expansions of the gardens under Louis XIV, water was pumped to gardens from ponds near the château, with the Clagny pond serving as the principal source. Bosquet de l'Arc de Triomphe Today, the museum of Versailles is still faced with water problems. Welcome to the gardens When you arrive at the Palace, you can go directly to the gardens by going to the top left-hand side of the Cour d'Honneur, then entering the gate of the courtyard of the Princes. (Thompson 2006; Verlet 1985), In 1792, under order from the National Convention, some of the trees in gardens were felled, while parts of the Grand Parc were parceled and dispersed. Then, in 1860, much of the old growth from Louis XVI's replanting was removed and replaced. Upon Louis XVI's ascension to the throne, the gardens of the Versailles underwent a transformation that recalled the fourth building campaign of Louis XIV. Latona and her children, Apollo and Diana, being tormented with mud slung by Lycian peasants, who refused to let her and her children drink from their pond, appealed to Jupiter who responded by turning the Lycians into frogs. Beyond the channel and placed at the cardinal points within the bosquet were four additional fountains. From the seat of power to a museum of the history of France. At this time the bosquet was rechristened Bosquet des Bains d'Apollon. In the case of the Grandes Eaux – when all the fountains played to their maximum – more than 10,000 m3 of water was needed for one afternoon's display. Bosquet des Sources - La Colonnade 1670, Apollo attended by nymphsby François Girardon and Thomas Regnaudin, ca. Seizing upon the success of a system devised in 1680 that raised water from the Seine to the gardens of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, construction of the Machine de Marly began the following year. 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