In the Search tab, type in Noctis Labyrinthus and zoom to ~300 miles. [7] In the chasmata of Noctis Labyrinthus, these pit crater chain collapse zones propagate directionally with a V-shaped tip, and can be used as an indicator of the direction into which magma withdraws from its underlying chamber. As the crust bulged in the Tharsis province it stretched apart the surrounding terrain, ripping fractures several kilometres deep and leaving blocks stranded within the resulting trenches. Again, use this resource (Links to an external site.) Locate Noctis Labyrinthus Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Edge of mesa on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus showing layers; enlargement from the same image as previous. It was imaged by ESA’s Mars Express on 15 July 2015. Assume that water flowed through these valleys at some time. Part of Noctis Labyrinthus taken with Mars Global Surveyor. 3D). Noctis Labyrinthus is an intricate system of Late Hesperian and Early Amazonian linear troughs and rounded pits con- necting the Tharsis volcanic rise and western Valles Marin-eris next to Martian equator. It is part of a complex feature whose origin lies in the swelling of the crust owing to tectonic and volcanic activity in the Tharsis region, home to Olympus Mons and other large volcanoes. The segment presented here captures a roughly 120 km-wide portion of that network, with one large, flat-topped block taking centre stage. Layers probably contain a variety of minerals that were formed with groundwater. a. What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? Floor of Noctis Labyrinthus showing layered structures, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. a. [5], The Noctis Labyrinthus fracture zone is centered at the heart of the Tharsis Rise, dividing a plateau of Hesperian-Noachian age that is understood to be of a basaltic composition. The linear channels suggest the material making up the flanks of this volcano is somewhat easily eroded: the most common explanation for this is that the flanks of Apollinaris are covered with pyroclastic material rather than rocky lava flows. The walls of these valleys are very high (~5 km) and quite steep, with slopes approaching 35degs. a. Trellis b. Dendritic c. Rectangular d. Radial e. Deranged . 9. This huge system of troughs near the equator of Mars was most likely created by tectonic forces which pulled apart the crust. Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Figure 13.8 Left: a typical deranged pattern; right: a typical radial drainage pattern developed around a mountain or hill. Identify any evidence of erosion/deposition in the valley floor and suggest a process by which this valley may have formed.Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”).Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Mars Odyssey Mission THEMIS: Feature Image: Noctis Labyrinthus Landslides, "Trough deposits on Mars point to complex hydrologic past", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Noctis_Labyrinthus&oldid=991943797, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 17:21. [8] Some authors have also proposed that Noctis Labyrinthus' chasmata may have formed due to extensional faulting in weakened rocks composed of interlayered tuff and lava flows, known to produce pit crater chains parallel to graben. Such drainage could occur slowly, fulfilling the requirement that interdune deposition be low energy, and only partial burial could be accounted for by the many different paths such drainage could take. Mars Has Shown Evidence Of Water, And NASA And Others Have Been Studying Mars Intensely In Recent Years. 4. In association with volcanism, minor faulting occurred, producing an oval pattern of faults in southwest Syria Planum (set IVBl) and a radial pattern south of the planum (set IVB2) that apparently rejuvenated buried stage II faults. Light-toned structure on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus; enlargement from same image. Most of the rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plains are of dendritic type. The Coprates and Phoenicis Lacus quadrangles of Mars contain the Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus, and Claritas Fossae areas, each of which shows distinctive structural patterns. A chain of crater-like depressions forms, where the extent of the collapse dictated by how deeply the magma body is located. The chronological relationships among these trends and their relation to the stratigraphy has been determined. Thin dark layers on floor of Noctis Labyrinthus; enlargement from same image. Question: WATER INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY Now Let's Travel To Mars! Assume that water flowed through these valleys at some time. Include a simple sketch of the drainage below. This is a radial drainage pattern (if it was carved by water). In this Viking 1 image, the canyons of Noctis Labyrinthus are filled with water ice fog from frost sublimated by the early morning sun. An unnamed depression near the southernmost extent of the Noctis Labyrinthus system, near the divide of Syria Planum and Sinai Planum and at the western end of the Valles Marineris, was found to be one of the most mineralogically diverse sites yet observed on the planet. [3] Research described in December 2009 found a variety of minerals, including clays, sulfates, and hydrated silicas, in some of the layers. Section of layers near top of Noctis Labyrinthus, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Image was created by Viking Mars Digital Image Mosaic (MDIM) over Mars … Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”). Analyses of the structural trends seen within these quadrangles show four principal trend directions. The pit is the only one of its kind in Noctis Labyrinthus and has a greater variability than almost any other location yet observed on the planet. The polygonally fractured western Noctis Labyrinthus marks the present summit region (middle); ancient radially fractured plains, some of Noachian age , extend to the north, where lava flows and small shields from the younger Tharsis Montes region embay and are superposed on the ancient fractured deposits. These deposits, dated to the late Hesperian, post-date most Martian deposits of hydrated minerals. Noctis Labyrinthus, on the eastern edge of the Tharsis Plateau, ... , and display first and second order parallel drainage patterns. Noctis Labyrinthus is notable for its unusual pattern of intersecting valleys, which give the region a maze-like appearance when viewed from above. As the underlying magma body drains, the chamber's pressure decreases and it begins to deflate. The region is notable for its maze-like system of deep, steep-walled valleys. Drainage pattern is the pattern formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin.They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land. [6] The valleys of Noctis Labyrinthus fractured into three distinct trends (NNE/SSW, ENE/WSW, WNW/ESE) in an interlinked pattern that has been compared to the terrestrial fault systems that have formed over terrestrial domes. A fourth type of drainage pattern, which is not specific to a drainage basin, is known as radial (Figure 13.8, right). Let's Look At A Few Fea- Tures On Mars. [4], Noctis Labyrinthus is located in the heart of Tharsis at the western end of the Valles Marineris, manifesting as a network of graben that extends in a spider-like network before coalescing into a coherent, relatively shallow graben swarm that curves in a semicircular fashion towards the south into the Claritas Rise. In some places, particularly notable in the lower-right corner of the plan view image (above), wind has drawn the dust into dune fields that extend up onto the surrounding plateaus. Coprates quadrangle is famous for depicting the "Grand Canyon of Mars", the Valles Marineris Canyon System. The rock layers in this image were likely horizontal when the materials were first deposited, but are now tilted to high angles, approaching 90 degrees, so we get a … Noctis Labyrinthus is estimated to have experienced collapses from the drainage of magma chambers up to 5 km below the chasmata floors. J. Alexis P. Rodriguez, Mario Zarroca, Rogelio Linares, Virginia Gulick, Catherine M. Weitz, Jianguo Yan, Alberto G. Fairén, Hideaki Miyamoto, Thomas Platz, Victor Baker, Jeffrey Kargel, Natalie Glines, Kana Higuchi. What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? In the Search tab, type in Noctis Labyrinthus and zoom to ~300 miles. The drainage pattern marked by right-angled bends and right-angled junctions between tributaries and the main stream is known as rectangular drainage. This is not necessarily indicative of a global alterational phenomenon, but is most likely tied to a localized heat source such as a volcano or an impact crater. The straight alignments of many canyon walls, and the faulting in several directions associated with Noctis Labyrinthus, combine to suggest that the Valles Marineris system is composed of great rift valleys formed on the surface of a dome. Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in … [6], Calcium-rich pyroxenes have been spectrally observed elsewhere in the northern reaches of the Noctis Labyrinthus fracture zone. Image is 20 mile wide. [6] No evidence of fluvial or aeolian erosion is observed in this region.[5]. Close-up of part of previous image of layers in Noctis Labyrinthus, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. 41. Apollinaris Mons is an ancient shield volcano in the southern hemisphere of Mars.It is situated near the equator, south of Elysium Planitia and north of the impact crater Gusev (the landing site of the Mars rover Spirit).Elysium Planitia separates it from the volcanic province of Elysium to its northwest. It differs from the trellis pattern in … Here, we show that Noctis Labyrinthus, a unique system of troughs connecting the Tharsis volcanic rise and western Valles Marineris, retains geologic evidence of conduit development associated with structurally-controlled groundwater flow through salt-rich upper crustal deposits. Layers in the wall of Noctis Labyrinthus taken with Mars Global Surveyor. [8], Other authors have suggested that phreatomagmatic processes were associated with the formation of the Noctis Labyrinthus chasmata. Local heating facilitated drainage of ~105 km3 of brines and ... Noctis Labyrinthus Echus Chasma Kasei Valles Hebes Chasma Juventae ... valleys, a pattern repeated elsewhere around the chasma walls. [6] Some researchers have counterproposed that rather than a sequentially reversed depositional event, this basin formed in a single, highly heterogeneous event. [6], Moasic of Viking 1 Orbiter pictures showing location of Noctus Labyrinthus. April 07, 2010 A portion of this image shows layered bedrock that has been faulted and tilted. Open Educational Resource.Outer Planets in […] b. In Noctis Labyrinthus, the 475 measured pits had mean widths of 136 ± 52 m, mean lengths of 177 ± 67 m, and a mean southward migration direction of 191° ± 10° (Figure 4a). Close-up of some layers in wall of Noctis Labyrinthus, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. You have already liked this page, you can only like it once. Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Denudation produces a zigzag pattern of outcrops, and adjustment to this pattern produces a stream net in which the trunks are aligned on weak rocks exposed along fold… A synthesis of deformation patterns within and around the Thaumasia Plateau, Mars, points to a new interpretation for regional deformation and the origin of Valles Marineris and associated outflow channels. Here we discuss the identification of a hydrated light-toned rock unit present in one Chasma of the Noctis Labyrinthus region. This is a radial drainage pattern (if it was carved by water). Image taken with THEMIS. Using CRISM spectral data on HiRISE visual images for context, the researchers proposed that the variability of this pit is a result of hydrothermal alteration, with the dissolution of extant calcium-rich minerals (e.g. What type of drainage pattern would this area represent? Assume that water flowed through these valleys at some time. A pattern of drainage which is branching, ramifying or dichotomising, thereby giving the appearance of a tree. [1] It is located in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle. [7], Other authors have proposed an alternate origin for Noctis Labyrinthus, linking its formation to the Valles Marineris and likening its initial formation to the expansion and collapse of a dense lava tube network. Location and name. The polygonally fractured western Noctis Labyrinthus marks the present summit region (middle); ancient radially fractured plains, some of Noachian age , extend to the north, where lava flows and small shields from the younger Tharsis Montes region embay and are superposed on the ancient fractured deposits. 40. The order of this layering is unique to the unnamed depression and is typically reversed in most Martian contexts, with the mafic smectites forming the bottom Noachian-age layer. Scientists have wondered if Mars ever had rainfall. What type of drainage pattern would this area represent? In the top third of the image, on the western side of the northernmost trough, a buildup of relatively bright … Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”). Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being part of drainage basins. a. Dust covers most of this region, leading to its rather uniform appearance. However, researchers have suggested that they appear to coexist because the different deposits may have been exposed to the open atmosphere at different times, and some of these minerals do only fully dehydrate under Martian conditions over the course of many years. Consider the material that makes up Apollinaris: what does the presence of these linear channels suggest about the strength (ability to resist erosion) of the underlying material? What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? This block of martian terrain, etched with an intricate pattern of landslides and wind-blown dunes, is a small segment of a vast labyrinth of valleys, fractures and plateaus. The center coordinates of Noctis Labyrinthus are 7.0 S and 102.2 W (257.8 E). plagioclase) diminishing the acidity and thus kinds of minerals observed. This is a very bizarre drainage pattern compared to some of the others we’ve observed on Mars and certainly quite different from many on Earth. Near-linear features are also visible on the flat elevated surfaces: fault lines crossing each other in different directions, suggesting many episodes of tectonic stretching in the complex history of this region. Locate Noctis Labyrinthus Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? The linear channels suggest the material making up the flanks of this volcano is somewhat easily eroded: the most common explanation for this is that the flanks of Apollinaris are covered with pyroclastic material rather than rocky lava flows. Include a simple sketch of the drainage below; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Layers in the lower portion of two neighbouring buttes within Noctis Labyrinthus. Include a simple sketch of the drainage below. What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being part of drainage basins. Include a simple sketch of Include a simple sketch of the drainage below. Courtesy NASA/Malin Space Science Systems. In this basin in particular, the mafic smectite layer overlays sulfates, aluminum phyllosilicate clays, and opaline silica deposits. Other articles where Trellis drainage pattern is discussed: river: Drainage patterns: Trellis (or espalier) drainage patterns result from adjustment to tight regional folding in which the folds plunge. Locate Noctis Labyrinthus Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? (Answer options include Radial, Dendritic, Rectangular, or Trellis) A mesa on the floor of Noctis Labyrinthus. Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Denudation produces a zigzag pattern of outcrops, and adjustment to this pattern produces a stream net in which the trunks are aligned on weak rocks exposed along fold… [8] Others have proposed that the chasmata of Noctis Labyrinthus are collapse features of a karstic nature, in which constituent carbonate rock is dissolved by meteoric water that has been acidified by acids originating in volcanic gases. It is located in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle. Assume that water flowed through these valleys at some time. Wide view of cliff with layers in Noctis Labyrinthus. Courtesy NASA/Malin Space Science Systems. Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”). [2] It is thought that this faulting was triggered by volcanic activity in the Tharsis region. Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Question 17: Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? The fine pattern of branching stream beds were probably formed from water moving across the surface. What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock? , you can only like it once relationships among these trends and their relation to the Hesperian! Thereby giving the appearance of a tree show four principal trend directions sketch of the Valles Marineris and the Plateau... From same image unusual pattern of branching stream beds were probably formed from water moving across the.... Connect to the Late Hesperian, post-date most Martian deposits of hydrated minerals faults known as Rectangular.. 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